Geologists study the nature and history of the earth's crust, and apply their knowledge to help explore for minerals and hydrocarbons, develop resources for production, build engineering foundations and stable slopes, find and evaluate ground water supplies and conduct environmental investigations. Geophysicists use the principles of physics, mathematics and geology in studying the water, surface and internal composition of the earth. Exploration geophysicists look for oil, natural gas, water and minerals for commercial and environmental projects.
Prior to 2014, APEGA awarded the titles of professional geologist and professional geophysicist. These titles remain valid for those who hold them, but new applicants can only be given the title of professional geoscientist