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Sociologists systematically study and analyze human societies. They use distinct sociological perspectives to understand and explain the causes and consequences of social interaction.

  • Avg. Salary $77,751.00
  • Avg. Wage $43.03
  • Minimum Education 6 years post-secondary
  • Outlook below avg
  • Employed < 1500
  • In Demand Lower
Also Known As

Research Scientist, Social Scientist

NOC Codes

In Canada, the federal government groups and organizes occupations based on a National Occupational Classification (NOC) system. This alis occupation may not reflect the entire NOC group it is part of. Data for the NOC group can apply across multiple occupations.

The NOC system is updated every 5 years to reflect changes in the labour market. Government forms and labour market data may group and refer to an occupation differently, depending on the system used. Here is how this occupation has been classified over time:

  • 2006 NOC: Sociologists (4169.8) 
  • 2006 NOC-S: Other Professional Occupations in Social Science (E038) 
  • 2011 NOC: Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c. (4169) 
  • 2016 NOC: Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c. (4169) 
Skills Shortage

Employers that Recruited in the Last 2 Years

Average Wage
  • Certification Not Regulated
  • Strength Required Lift up to 5 kg
Interest Codes
The Sociologist is part of the following larger National Occupational Classification (NOC).

Interest in co-ordinating information to devise methods of collecting and analyzing data; and to interpret data and correlate findings with other research in the field of sociology and related fields


Interest in consulting with governments and other organizations to report findings and bring forward recommendations; may teach sociology at advanced educational levels


Interest in organizing data into forms suitable for application by governments and other organizations

Reading Interest Codes
A Quick Guide

The interest code helps you figure out if you’d like to work in a particular occupation. 
It’s based on the Canadian Work Preference Inventory (CWPI), which measures 5 occupational interests: Directive, Innovative, Methodical, Objective and Social.

Each set of 3 interest codes is listed in order of importance.

A code in capital letters means it’s a strong fit for the occupation.

A code in all lowercase letters means the fit is weaker.

Learn More

Updated Mar 31, 2019

Sociologists do sociological research. They use various approaches, such as functionalist, feminist, post-modernist, or conflict theories. They research historical studies, surveys, interviews, experiments, document analyses, quantitative data analyses, and observational studies. They use these to examine:

  • The nature of relationships between individuals and society
  • The attitudes, values, and behaviour of people in groups, including families, schools, racial and ethnic communities, workplaces, cities, rural locales, societies, health-care organizations, and sports venues
  • The development and structure of groups, organizations, and institutions, such as law, education, marriage, and religion
  • Behavioural patterns and relationships, such as patterns of dating, gender roles, prison life, and workplace behaviours
  • The identification and background of social issues, such as crime, immigration, poverty, unemployment, health, aging, environment, social injustice, and population change
  • Social policy and legislation and its effects on society, such as environmental or employment policy, same-sex marriage or antiterrorist legislation
  • Aspects of social change, such as cultural change, urbanization, changes in family lifestyles, globalization, science and technology, and trends in popular culture
  • Organized efforts to change the direction of social life, such as the women’s, Indigenous, LGBTQ2S+, antiracism, environmental, peace and anti-globalization movements

In general, sociologists conduct studies, write reports and scholarly papers, and give professional presentations. They explain their field to different audiences to ensure the wider community has access to their academic research and knowledge. They also:

  • Plan and administer social programs
  • Review and interpret research and demographic data
  • Identify social patterns and trends
  • Plan and design projects
  • Develop and help to implement policies
  • Engage with communities
Working Conditions
Updated Mar 31, 2019

Sociologists spend most of their time in offices, classrooms, libraries, and computer laboratories. They spend many hours reading, analyzing data, and writing reports. They also may teach or give public presentations relating to their work.

Sociologists sometimes travel to gather information in the field. Some may find their skills suited to work in the community. For example, they may train community members or help develop community knowledge.

Sociologists may visit a variety of settings. These may include workplaces, child care centres, or busy downtown street corners. They also may include sports arenas, low-income housing complexes, ethnic communities, health-care institutions, or penitentiaries. With adequate education and qualifications, they may work in a classroom setting at a university or college.

  • Strength Required Lift up to 5 kg
Skills & Abilities
Updated Mar 31, 2019

Sociologists need:

  • Self-awareness and knowledge of the potential for bias
  • An interest in human interaction and social life
  • Communication and organizational skills
  • Curiosity and a willingness to question how society works

They should enjoy organizing and integrating information to solve problems in innovative ways. They should be comfortable consulting with people.

Educational Requirements
Updated Mar 31, 2019

In generally, the basic education requirement to work as a sociologist is a master’s or doctoral degree in sociology. The entrance requirement for master’s and doctoral degree programs is above-average standing in the last 2 years of a 4-year bachelor’s degree program, preferably an honours program.

Related Education

The following schools offer programs or courses that are related to this occupation but are not required to enter the field.

Athabasca University

Concordia University of Edmonton

Grant MacEwan University

Mount Royal University

For a broad list of programs and courses that may be related to this occupation try searching using keywords.

Certification Requirements
Updated Mar 31, 2019

There is currently no provincial legislation regulating this occupation in Alberta.

Employment & Advancement
Updated Mar 31, 2019

Sociologists work for:

  • Health-care and social services organizations
  • Correctional services
  • Consulting, marketing, and polling firms
  • Federal, provincial, and municipal governments
  • Non-governmental organizations, such as community and social development groups
  • Universities and colleges
  • Large corporations

A doctoral degree is most often required to teach and conduct research at the post-secondary level. Some sociologists are self-employed consultants who work on a contract basis for private industry and government departments.

Sociologists are part of the larger 2011 National Occupational Classification 4169: Other professional occupations in social science. In Alberta, 79% of people employed in this classification work in the following industries:

The employment outlook (pdf) in this occupation will be influenced by a wide variety of factors including:

  • Trends and events affecting overall employment (especially in the industries listed above)
  • Location in Alberta
  • Employment turnover (work opportunities generated by people leaving existing positions)
  • Occupational growth (work opportunities resulting from the creation of new positions that never existed before)
  • Size of the occupation

Employment turnover is expected to increase as members of the baby boom generation retire over the next few years.

In Alberta, the 4169: Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c. occupational group is expected to have a below-average annual growth of 0% from 2019 to 2023. In addition to job openings created by employment turnover, 0 new positions are forecasted to be created within this occupational group each year.

Wage & Salary
Updated Mar 31, 2019

Salaries vary widely in this field. Factors include the employer, the responsibilities of the position, and the sociologist’s qualifications.

Sociologists are part of the larger 2011 National Occupational Classification 4169: Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c.

Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c.

Survey Methodology

Survey Analysis

Overall Wage Details
Average Wage
Average Salary
Hours Per Week

Hourly Wage
For full-time and part-time employees
  • Low
  • High
  • Average
  • Median
Wages* Low (5th percentile) High (95th percentile) Average Median
Starting $25.00 $41.44 $34.37 $34.03
Overall $30.84 $55.02 $43.03 $41.18
Top $34.52 $64.72 $48.62 $44.88

Swipe left and right to view all data. Scroll left and right to view all data.

* All wage estimates are hourly except where otherwise indicated. Wages and salaries do not include overtime hours, tips, benefits, profit shares, bonuses (unrelated to production) and other forms of compensation.

B: Good Reliability
Data Reliability Code Definition

Good Reliability, represents a CV of between 6.01% and 15.00% and/or fewer than 30 survey observations and/or if survey observations represent less than 50% of all estimated employment for the occupation.

Industry Information
Public Administration
Health Care & Social Assistance

Skills Shortage

Employers that Recruited in the Last 2 Years


Recruiting Employers that Experienced Hiring Difficulties


Employers with Unfilled Vacancies of over 4 Months


Vacancy Rate

Related Post-Secondary Field of Study
  • Social Sciences, Law and Religious Studies
Other Sources of Information
Updated Mar 31, 2019

Canadian Sociological Association (CSA) website:

Get information and referrals about career, education, and employment options from Alberta Supports.

Updated Mar 31, 2019. The information contained in this profile is current as of the dates shown. Salary, employment outlook, and educational program information may change without notice. It is advised that you confirm this information before making any career decisions.

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