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Hydrologists study the occurrence, distribution, circulation and properties of water in the atmosphere, on the Earth’s surface, and in soil and underlying rocks.

Also Known As

Hydrogeologist, Physical Geographer, Physical Scientist, Research Scientist, Surface Water Scientist, Water Resources Engineer, Water Scientist, Watershed Scientist

NOC Codes

In Canada, the federal government groups and organizes occupations based on a National Occupational Classification (NOC) system. This alis occupation may not reflect the entire NOC group it is part of. Data for the NOC group can apply across multiple occupations.

The NOC system is updated every 5 years to reflect changes in the labour market. Government forms and labour market data may group and refer to an occupation differently, depending on the system used.

Here is how this occupation has been classified over time.

2006 NOC

  • 2113: Geologists, Geochemists and Geophysicists

2006 NOC-S

  • C013: Geologists, Geochemists and Geophysicists

2011 NOC

  • 2113: Geoscientists and oceanographers

2016 NOC

  • 2113: Geoscientists and oceanographers

2021 NOC

  • 21102: Geoscientists and oceanographers

2023 OaSIS

  • 21102.01: Geoscientists
Updated Mar 03, 2021

Duties and responsibilities vary from one position to another. Hydrologists often specialize in particular water-related fields but, in general, they:

  • Apply scientific knowledge, mathematical and physical principles to solve water-related problems
  • Study the amounts and timing of river flow, precipitation, evaporation, infiltration; and storage of water in rivers, lakes, wetlands and other water bodies
  • Study flow and storage of groundwater in aquifers
  • Study glaciers, snowpacks and ice sheets, whether as snow or ice
  • Study the way soil moisture and subsurface water in rocks and soils interact with groundwater systems
  • Study the transport, travel time and fate of dissolved and suspended matters in water
  • Help to limit the environmental impacts of land-use change, erosion, sedimentation, pollution and water-borne diseases
  • Study the short-term and long-term effects of climate change and weather variability on the outlook of water supply, flow and storage
  • Conduct risk analyses for hydrological extremes such as floods and droughts
  • Develop integrated water and drainage management plans for river basins, often as part of technical or planning cross-disciplinary teams
  • Assess whether to develop hydroelectric power plants, irrigation systems and other systems for using or supplying water
  • Study public and industrial surface and groundwater supply, water quality, wastewater, in-stream flows and recreation requirements to learn how fish and wildlife habitats are impacted
  • Conduct environmental impact assessments of resource projects
  • Study the effects that natural disturbances, such as wildfires or mountain pine beetle, have on water quantity and quality, as well as aquatic ecology
  • Gather stream flow, water level, climate, geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing and other data
  • Analyse data and develop hydrologic models
  • Delineate drainage boundaries using topographic data and other information to define the extents of catchments, watersheds and river basins
  • Prepare technical reports and presentations
  • Coordinate and supervise the work of technologists and technicians

Hydrogeologists are hydrologists who specialize in studying groundwater.

Working Conditions
Updated Mar 03, 2021
  • Strength Required Lift up to 20 kg

Hydrologists may work alone or with a team of professionals, technologists or technicians. They may work primarily indoors in an office environment or outdoors conducting field investigations. Hours of work are typical of other professionals in office-based roles but can be long if fieldwork is a regular duty. Fieldwork may involve being away from home for days or weeks. It may also involve working in remote and rugged terrain in adverse conditions. Lifting up to 20 kilograms may be required in fieldwork.

Interests & Abilities

In Alberta, this occupation is part of 1 or more 2006 National Occupational Classification (NOC) groups. If there are multiple related NOC groups, select a NOC heading to learn about each one.

Geologists, Geochemists and Geophysicists

2006 NOC: 2113

Interest Codes

Interest Codes for This NOC Group

Interest in synthesizing information to plan and direct field studies, drilling and testing programs, and seismic, electromagnetic, magnetic, gravimetric, radiometric, radar and other remote sensing programs to extend knowledge of the earth; in assessing deposits and geological age; and in determining characteristics and suitability of materials for use as concrete aggregates, road fill and other applications


Interest in precision working with instruments to identify deposits of construction materials; and in participating in remote sensing programs and in analyses of core samples, drill cuttings and rock samples to identify chemical, mineral, hydrocarbon and biological composition


Interest in consulting to recommend the acquisition of lands, exploration and mapping programs, and mine development; and in advising in areas such as waste management, route and site selection and the restoration of contaminated sites; may supervise and co-ordinate well drilling, completion and workovers, and mining activities

Your Interest Codes

To identify or change your interest codes, complete the Interests Exercise in CAREERinsite.

Reading Interest Codes
A Quick Guide

The interest code helps you figure out if you’d like to work in a particular occupation. 

It’s based on the Canadian Work Preference Inventory (CWPI), which measures 5 occupational interests: Directive, Innovative, Methodical, Objective, and Social.

Each set of 3 interest codes for this NOC group is listed in order of importance.

A code in capital letters means it’s a strong fit for the occupation.

A code in all lowercase letters means the fit is weaker.

Learn About Interests


Typical ability expectations for this NOC group
Your abilities

To fill in or change the values for your abilities, complete the Abilities Exercise in CAREERinsite.

Mental Abilities

General Learning Ability

Verbal Ability

Numerical Ability

Visual Abilities

Spatial Perception

Form Perception

Clerical Perception

Physical Abilities

Motor Coordination

Finger Dexterity

Manual Dexterity

Understanding Abilities

A Quick Guide

You are born with abilities that help you process certain types of information and turn it into action. These abilities influence which skills you can learn more easily.

The abilities or aptitudes shown for this NOC group come from the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB). The GATB measures 9 aptitudes. It groups them into 3 categories: mental, visual, and physical.

The abilities scores range from 1 to 5, with 5 being stronger.

Learn About Abilities

Traits & Skills
Updated Mar 03, 2021

Hydrologists need:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Analytical ability and critical thinking skills
  • Problem-solving skills
  • Oral communication skills
  • An ability to write clear and informative engineering reports
  • An ability to work alone and as a team

They should enjoy:

  • Preparing, reviewing and analyzing data
  • Coordinating information
  • Developing innovative approaches to problems
  • Using instruments and equipment to perform tasks requiring precision
  • Consulting with people
  • Working outdoors

In Alberta, this occupation is part of 1 or more 2016 National Occupational Classification (NOC) groups. If there are multiple related NOC groups, select a NOC heading to learn about each one.

Top 10 Skills Employers Are Looking For

Geoscientists and oceanographers

2016 NOC: 2113

This chart shows which job skills are currently in highest demand for this occupational group. It was created using this occupation's 19 most recent Alberta job postings, collected between Dec 23, 2021 and Jul 10, 2024.

Review these skills to learn:

  • Whether or not this occupation matches your skill set
  • What training you may need to get these skills
  • What skills to highlight in your resumé, cover letter, and interview.
Health benefits: Health care plan
Health benefits: Dental plan
Financial benefits: Bonus
Tasks: Plan, direct and participate in analyses of geological, geochemical and geophysical survey data, well logs and other test results, maps, notes and cross sections
Tasks: Identify and advise on anticipated natural risks
Health benefits: Vision care benefits
Work Setting: Consulting geology, geophysics or engineering firm
Construction Specialization: Team player
Construction Specialization: Flexibility
Tasks: Plan, direct and participate in geological, geochemical and geophysical field studies, drilling and geological testing programs
Educational Requirements
Updated Mar 03, 2021
  • Minimum Education 4 years post-secondary

The minimum education requirement is a 4-year bachelor’s degree in a discipline with a strong hydrology component. This might include geography, civil engineering, environmental science, earth sciences, agriculture or forestry. A master’s degree is required for some positions. Before enrolling in a bachelor’s degree program, prospective hydrologists should discuss their education options with people currently working in the field.

Hydrologists who provide design input for water management infrastructure projects (for example, dams, canals, storm water management, pipeline or bridge crossings) must have an engineering degree and Professional Engineer status.

Hydrologists who provide geological input must have a degree in geology and Professional Geoscientist status.

To expand or narrow your search for programs related to this occupation, visit Post-Secondary Programs.

Completing a program does not guarantee entrance into an occupation. Before enrolling in an education program, prospective students should look into various sources for education options and employment possibilities. For example, contact associations and employers in this field.

Certification Requirements
Updated Mar 03, 2021
  • Certification Not Regulated

Certification is not required, as there is currently no legislation regulating this occupation. However, hydrologists who provide project design input are subject to regulations for engineers. Similarly, those who provide geological input are subject to regulations for geoscientists.

Employment & Advancement
Updated Mar 03, 2021

Hydrologists are employed by:

  • Natural resource companies
  • Civil engineering, environmental and forestry consulting firms
  • Government departments

Experienced hydrologists may work with Canadian consulting firms overseas or advance to water resource management positions.

Industry Concentration

This section shows the industries where the majority of people in this occupation work. The data is based on the 2016 Census.

In Alberta, this occupation is part of 1 or more 2016 National Occupational Classification (NOC) groups.

In the 2113: Geoscientists and oceanographers occupational group, 86.0% of people work in:

Employment Outlook

Employment outlook is influenced by a wide variety of factors including:

  • Time of year (for seasonal jobs)
  • Location in Alberta
  • Employment turnover (when people leave existing positions)
  • Occupational growth (when new positions are created)
  • Size of the occupation
  • Trends and events that affect overall employment, especially in the industry or industries from the previous list

In Alberta, the 2113: Geoscientists and oceanographers occupational group is expected to have an average annual growth of 2.4% from 2021 to 2025. In addition to job openings created by employment turnover, 53 new positions are forecasted to be created within this occupational group each year.

NOC groups often include several related occupations. Although there is labour market data for the larger NOC group, this occupation makes up only a part of that group. It means data for this occupation may be different than the data shown. For example, only some of the new positions to be created will be for this occupation. It also applies to other data for the NOC group such as number of people employed.

Source: 2021-2025 Alberta Regional Occupational Demand Outlook

Employment turnover is expected to increase as members of the baby boom generation retire over the next few years.

Related Alberta Job Postings
Wage & Salary
Updated Mar 03, 2021

Hydrologists’ salaries vary considerably depending on their qualifications and the responsibilities of the position.

In Alberta, this occupation is part of 1 or more 2016 National Occupational Classification (NOC) groups. If there are multiple related NOC groups, select a NOC heading to learn about each one.

Geoscientists and oceanographers

2016 NOC: 2113
Average Wage
Per Hour
Average Salary
Per Year
Average Hours
Per Week
Average Months on Payroll
Survey Methodology Survey Analysis

2021 Alberta Wage and Salary Survey

NOC 2113 Wage Profile

Unless otherwise noted, the data shown here is for all industries and all regions in Alberta.

All wage estimates are hourly except where otherwise indicated. Wages and salaries do not include overtime hours, tips, benefits, profit shares, bonuses (unrelated to production), and other forms of compensation.

To see the full survey data for this NOC group, visit the wage profile.

Other wage sources
To make an informed wage and salary decision, research other wage sources [pdf] to supplement this data.

B: Good Reliability
Data Reliability Code Definition

Good Reliability, represents a CV of between 6.01% and 15.00% and/or fewer than 30 survey observations and/or if survey observations represent less than 50% of all estimated employment for the occupation.

Hourly Wage

For full-time and part-time employees
  • Low
  • High
  • Average
  • Median

Hourly Wage

For full-time and part-time employees
Wages* Low (5th percentile) High (95th percentile) Average Median
Starting $24.04 $79.82 $53.75 $52.05
Overall $37.44 $84.13 $65.53 $62.82
Top $40.00 $109.85 $78.97 $76.88

Swipe left and right to view all data. Scroll left and right to view all data.

* All wage estimates are hourly except where otherwise indicated. Wages and salaries do not include overtime hours, tips, benefits, profit shares, bonuses (unrelated to production) and other forms of compensation.

Pay brackets for hourly wages

  • Starting pay: average pay offered for entry-level positions
  • Overall pay: average pay across all employees in this occupation
  • Top pay: average pay offered to top-paid employees

Industry Information

Oil & Gas Extraction
Professional, Scientific & Technical Services
Public Administration

Skills Shortage

Employers that Recruited in the Last 2 Years
Recruiting Employers that Experienced Hiring Difficulties
Employers with Unfilled Vacancies of over 4 Months
Vacancy Rate
Related Post-Secondary Field of Study
  • Agriculture and Related Technologies
  • Engineering, Architecture and Related Studies
  • Environment, Forestry and Related Studies
  • Sciences
Other Sources of Information
Updated Mar 03, 2021

Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Alberta (APEGA) website:

Get information and referrals about career, education, and employment options from Alberta Supports.

Updated Mar 03, 2021. The information contained in this profile is current as of the dates shown. Salary, employment outlook, and educational program information may change without notice. It is advised that you confirm this information before making any career decisions.

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