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Sound Engineer

Sound engineers use a variety of techniques and electronic equipment to control the sound components of live events such as theatre performances and music concerts.

Also Known As

Audio Recording Engineer, Mix Engineer, Sound Technician, Front of House Engineer

NOC Codes

In Canada, the federal government groups and organizes occupations based on a National Occupational Classification (NOC) system. This alis occupation may not reflect the entire NOC group it is part of. Data for the NOC group can apply across multiple occupations.

The NOC system is updated every 5 years to reflect changes in the labour market. Government forms and labour market data may group and refer to an occupation differently, depending on the system used.

Here is how this occupation has been classified over time.

2006 NOC

  • 5225: Audio and Video Recording Technicians

2006 NOC-S

  • F125: Audio and Video Recording Technicians

2011 NOC

  • 5225: Audio and video recording technicians

2016 NOC

  • 5225: Audio and video recording technicians

2021 NOC

  • 52113: Audio and video recording technicians
Updated Apr 12, 2022

Sound engineers mix sound in live performances to produce the sound audiences and performers hear. Performers may use earphones or monitors to hear only specific voices or instruments. 

Sound engineers are not considered professional engineers and do not engage in the practice of engineering as defined in the Engineering and Geoscience Professions Act [pdf].

Unlike professional engineers who may design or construct audio systems, sound engineers:

  • discuss sound requirements with the production director, sound designer, artists or their representatives
  • develop a sound plot (a script of sound effects, music and changes in sound level)
  • select music and sound effects (for example, birdsong or traffic noises) from a sound library or record them
  • develop and program playback of created sound plots using a variety of audio equipment (for example, digital playback automation software)
  • select and position microphones and loudspeakers, and lay any necessary cables (or direct others in these tasks) 
  • balance amplication, equalize frequency response and mix sound during technical rehearsals and sound checks based on input from directors, sound designers or performers
  • conduct system tests before performances to ensure all sound equipment is placed and working properly
  • operate the sound desk during shows according to the sound plot, previous direction from performers and cues from the stage manager
  • maintain sound equipment

In addition, sound engineers

  • may be responsible for the house sound system, the performer's monitor system or recording the performance.

For live shows performed in a series of different venues, sound engineers may supervise the set up and tear down of the entire sound system or do the work themselves. It can be challenging to ensure the audience and performers can hear the sound effects and live music to the best effect, particularly in venues without an acoustically stable environment.

In smaller organizations, sound engineers also may assist with lighting (for more information, see the Lighting Technician occupational profile).

Working Conditions
Updated Jan 31, 2017
  • Strength Required Lift over 20 kg

Sound engineers work in theatres and other performance venues, often in semi-darkness at a control desk near the back. They occasionally may work at heights. Those who travel with a show sometimes work outdoors in all weather conditions. Some lifting is required to move and place sound equipment, which can weigh 20 kg or more.

Working evenings, weekends and holidays is common in this occupation. Sound engineers may be required to work long hours during rehearsal periods or spend a lot of time traveling on performance tours.

Interests & Abilities

In Alberta, this occupation is part of 1 or more 2006 National Occupational Classification (NOC) groups. If there are multiple related NOC groups, select a NOC heading to learn about each one.

Audio and Video Recording Technicians

2006 NOC: 5225

Interest Codes

Interest Codes for This NOC Group

Interest in controlling audio consoles or computers, tape machines, microphones and sound processing equipment to mix, combine and edit music and sound at concerts and live events and to operate electronic equipment to generate program titles, credits, subtitles, graphic backgrounds or animation for television programs


Interest in compiling information to play back edited sound tracks in synchronization with motion picture films


Interest in mixing, combining and editing music and sound at concerts and live events, and synchronizing edited dialogue, music and sound effect tracks from different sources

Your Interest Codes

To identify or change your interest codes, complete the Interests Exercise in CAREERinsite.

Reading Interest Codes
A Quick Guide

The interest code helps you figure out if you’d like to work in a particular occupation. 

It’s based on the Canadian Work Preference Inventory (CWPI), which measures 5 occupational interests: Directive, Innovative, Methodical, Objective, and Social.

Each set of 3 interest codes for this NOC group is listed in order of importance.

A code in capital letters means it’s a strong fit for the occupation.

A code in all lowercase letters means the fit is weaker.

Learn About Interests


Typical ability expectations for this NOC group
Your abilities

To fill in or change the values for your abilities, complete the Abilities Exercise in CAREERinsite.

Mental Abilities

General Learning Ability

Verbal Ability

Numerical Ability

Visual Abilities

Spatial Perception

Form Perception

Clerical Perception

Physical Abilities

Motor Coordination

Finger Dexterity

Manual Dexterity

Understanding Abilities

A Quick Guide

You are born with abilities that help you process certain types of information and turn it into action. These abilities influence which skills you can learn more easily.

The abilities or aptitudes shown for this NOC group come from the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB). The GATB measures 9 aptitudes. It groups them into 3 categories: mental, visual, and physical.

The abilities scores range from 1 to 5, with 5 being stronger.

Learn About Abilities

Traits & Skills
Updated Jan 31, 2017

Sound engineers must:

  • be patient, understanding and flexible
  • have the stamina to work long hours
  • be self-motivated
  • be able to think logically and pay attention to details
  • have good hearing with an ear for musical pitch and tone
  • have good communication skills to clarify what sounds are desired, make suggestions and accept criticism
  • be able to work with a variety of people as part of a team
  • be able to think and make decisions quickly to solve problems as they arise.

They should enjoy trouble-shooting problems and using electronic equipment to perform tasks requiring precision.

In Alberta, this occupation is part of 1 or more 2016 National Occupational Classification (NOC) groups. If there are multiple related NOC groups, select a NOC heading to learn about each one.

Top 10 Skills Employers Are Looking For

Audio and video recording technicians

2016 NOC: 5225

This chart shows which job skills are currently in highest demand for this occupational group. It was created using this occupation's 39 most recent Alberta job postings, collected between Nov 18, 2021 and Feb 21, 2024.

Review these skills to learn:

  • Whether or not this occupation matches your skill set
  • What training you may need to get these skills
  • What skills to highlight in your resumé, cover letter, and interview.
Tasks: Operate audio-visual or electronic equipment
Tasks: Set up, prepare, operate and adjust audio, recording, editing and reproducing equipment to record, edit and reproduce sound input
Tasks: Prepare and operate videotape recording and playback equipment and edit video tape after production
Tasks: Operate mixing, dubbing, editing machinery and equipment
Tasks: Operate audio consoles or computers, tape machines, microphones and sound processing equipment at concerts and live events
Attention to detail
Construction Specialization: Flexibility
Construction Specialization: Client focus
Video production
Construction Specialization: Team player
Educational Requirements
Updated Jan 31, 2017
  • Minimum Education Varies

Although a related post-secondary certificate or diploma is an asset when seeking employment, there are no formal education requirements for sound engineers. Most have acquired a working knowledge of today's computer-based recording technologies (for example, digital mixing consoles and random access editing). They have also developed an ability to adapt quickly to many different recording formats and devices by learning on the job and taking related courses. Sound engineers must be very versatile, keep up to date with changing technology and be able to work in many different circumstances.

An understanding of music theory and harmony is an asset for those who work on music projects.

Aspiring sound engineers should discuss their career plans with people and employers in the industry before enrolling in a training program.

Related Education

The following schools offer programs or courses that are related to this occupation but are not required to enter the field.

Alberta University of the Arts
Banff Centre for Arts and Creativity
Southern Alberta Institute of Technology
University of Lethbridge

To expand or narrow your search for programs related to this occupation, visit Post-Secondary Programs.

Completing a program does not guarantee entrance into an occupation. Before enrolling in an education program, prospective students should look into various sources for education options and employment possibilities. For example, contact associations and employers in this field.

Certification Requirements
Updated Jan 31, 2017
  • Certification Not Regulated

There is currently no provincial legislation regulating this occupation in Alberta.

Employment & Advancement
Updated Jan 31, 2017

It can be difficult to break into sound engineering. Experience working on a practicum placement through a school training program or as a volunteer at a performance venue is an asset.

Most sound engineers are self-employed. They may work on a contract basis for:

  • theatre and dance companies
  • live sound re-enforcement companies
  • clubs
  • bands
  • cruise lines.

It is common in the industry for someone to start out as a "gofer" or assistant engineer in a theatre or a "roadie" for a band, and work their way up. You must be willing to work for little money to gain practical experience and establish a reputation for good work.

Advancement generally takes the form of working on increasingly complex productions. Experienced sound engineers may become sound designers or technical production managers, or move into related occupations in radio or television, or sound equipment sales, installation and maintenance.

Industry Concentration

This section shows the industries where the majority of people in this occupation work. The data is based on the 2016 Census.

In Alberta, this occupation is part of 1 or more 2016 National Occupational Classification (NOC) groups.

In the 5225: Audio and video recording technicians occupational group, 79.1% of people work in:

Employment Outlook

Employment outlook is influenced by a wide variety of factors including:

  • Time of year (for seasonal jobs)
  • Location in Alberta
  • Employment turnover (when people leave existing positions)
  • Occupational growth (when new positions are created)
  • Size of the occupation
  • Trends and events that affect overall employment, especially in the industry or industries from the previous list

In Alberta, the 5225: Audio and video recording technicians occupational group is expected to have a below-average annual growth of 0% from 2019 to 2023. In addition to job openings created by employment turnover, 0 new positions are forecasted to be created within this occupational group each year.

NOC groups often include several related occupations. Although there is labour market data for the larger NOC group, this occupation makes up only a part of that group. It means data for this occupation may be different than the data shown. For example, only some of the new positions to be created will be for this occupation. It also applies to other data for the NOC group such as number of people employed.

Source: 2019-2023 Alberta Regional Occupational Demand Outlook

Employment turnover is expected to increase as members of the baby boom generation retire over the next few years.

Related Alberta Job Postings
Wage & Salary
Updated Jan 31, 2017

In Alberta, this occupation is part of 1 or more 2016 National Occupational Classification (NOC) groups. If there are multiple related NOC groups, select a NOC heading to learn about each one.

Audio and video recording technicians

2016 NOC: 5225
Average Wage
Per Hour
Average Salary
Per Year
Average Hours
Per Week
Average Months on Payroll
Survey Methodology Survey Analysis

2021 Alberta Wage and Salary Survey

NOC 5225 Wage Profile

Unless otherwise noted, the data shown here is for all industries and all regions in Alberta.

All wage estimates are hourly except where otherwise indicated. Wages and salaries do not include overtime hours, tips, benefits, profit shares, bonuses (unrelated to production), and other forms of compensation.

To see the full survey data for this NOC group, visit the wage profile.

Other wage sources
To make an informed wage and salary decision, research other wage sources [pdf] to supplement this data.

C: Lower Reliability
Data Reliability Code Definition

Lower Reliability, represents a CV of between 15.01% and 33.00% and/or if fewer than 20 survey observations and/or if survey observations represent less than 33% of all estimated employment for the occupation.

Hourly Wage

For full-time and part-time employees
  • Low
  • High
  • Average
  • Median

Hourly Wage

For full-time and part-time employees
Wages* Low (5th percentile) High (95th percentile) Average Median
Starting $15.00 $75.00 $31.15 $27.39
Overall $15.00 $75.00 $34.78 $32.96
Top $15.00 $75.00 $37.37 $34.62

Swipe left and right to view all data. Scroll left and right to view all data.

* All wage estimates are hourly except where otherwise indicated. Wages and salaries do not include overtime hours, tips, benefits, profit shares, bonuses (unrelated to production) and other forms of compensation.

Pay brackets for hourly wages

  • Starting pay: average pay offered for entry-level positions
  • Overall pay: average pay across all employees in this occupation
  • Top pay: average pay offered to top-paid employees

Industry Information

Public Administration

Skills Shortage

Employers that Recruited in the Last 2 Years
Recruiting Employers that Experienced Hiring Difficulties
Employers with Unfilled Vacancies of over 4 Months
Vacancy Rate
Related Post-Secondary Field of Study
  • Communications
  • Fine Arts and Performing Arts
Other Sources of Information
Updated Apr 12, 2022

Alberta Music Industry Association website:

Cultural Human Resources Council website:

Get information and referrals about career, education, and employment options from Alberta Supports.

Updated Jan 31, 2017. The information contained in this profile is current as of the dates shown. Salary, employment outlook, and educational program information may change without notice. It is advised that you confirm this information before making any career decisions.

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